References: 2013 and Earlier

Adams J, Frumiento C, Shatney-Leach L, Vane DW. Mandatory admission after isolated mild closed head injury in children: is it necessary? J Pediatr Surg. 2001;36(1):119–121.

Aligene K1, Lin E. Vestibular and balance treatment of the concussed athlete. Neuro Rehabilitation. 2013;32(3):543-53.

Anderson V, Catroppa C, Morse S, Haritou F, Rosenfeld J. Outcome from mild head injury in young children: A prospective study. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2001;23(6):705–717.

Asplund CA, McKeag DB, Olsen CH. Sport-related concussion: factors associated with prolonged return to play. Clin J Sport Med. 2004;14(6):339–343.

Babcock L, Byczkowski T, Wade SL, Ho M, Mookerjee S, Bazarian JJ. Predicting postconcussion syndrome after mild traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents who present to the emergency department. JAMA Pediatr. 2013;167(2):156–161.

Babikian T, McArthur D, Asarnow RF. Predictors of 1-month and 1-year neurocognitive functioning from the UCLA longitudinal mild, uncomplicated, pediatric traumatic brain injury study. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2013;19(2):145–154.

Babikian T, Satz P, Zaucha K, Light R, Lewis RS, Asarnow RF. The UCLA longitudinal study of neurocognitive outcomes following mild pediatric traumatic brain injury. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2011;17(5):886–895.

Barlow KM, Crawford S, Stevenson A, Sandhu SS, Belanger F, Dewey D. Epidemiology of Postconcussion Syndrome in Pediatric Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Pediatrics. 2010 ;126(2):e374–e381.

Barlow M, Schlabach D, Peiffer J, Cook C. Differences in change scores and the predictive validity of three commonly used measures following concussion in the middle school and high school aged population. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2011;6(3):150–157.

Bassett SS, Slater EJ. Neuropsychological function in adolescents sustaining mild closed head injury. J Pediatr Psychol. 1990;15(2):225–236.

Berz K, Divine J, Foss KB, Heyl R, Ford KR, Myer GD. Sex-specific differences in the severity of symptoms and recovery rate following sports-related concussion in young athletes. Physician Sportsmed. 2013;41(2):58–63.

Bey T and Ostick B. Second Impact Syndrome. West J Emerg Med. Feb 2009; 10(1):6–10.

Blinman TA, Houseknecht E, Snyder C, Wiebe DJ, Nance ML. Postconcussive symptoms in hospitalized pediatric patients after mild traumatic brain injury. J Pediatr Surg. 2009;44(6):1223–1228.

Bonfield CM, Lam S, Lin Y, Greene S. The impact of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder on recovery from mild traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg. 2013;Pediatrics(2):97–102.

Borg J, Holm L, Cassidy JD, et al. Diagnostic procedures in mild traumatic brain injury: results of the WHO Collaborating Centre Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. J Rehabil Med. 2004;(43 Suppl):61–75.

Broglio SP, Eckner JT, Surma T, Kutcher JS. Post-concussion cognitive declines and symptomatology are not related to concussion biomechanics in high school football players. J Neurotrauma. 2011;28(10):2061–2068.

Brooks BL, McKay CD, Mrazik M, Barlow KM, Meeuwisse WH, Emery CA. Subjective, but not Objective, Lingering Effects of Multiple Past Concussions in Adolescents. J Neurotrauma. 2013;30(17):1469–1475.

Brosseau-Lachaine O, Gagnon I, Forget R, Faubert J. Mild traumatic brain injury induces prolonged visual processing deficits in children. Brain Inj. 2008;22(9):657–668.

Brown NJ, Mannix RC, O’Brien MJ, Gostine D, Collins MW, Meehan WP 3rd. Effect of cognitive activity level on duration of post-concussion symptoms. Pediatrics. 2014;133(2):e299-304.

Carroll LJ, Cassidy JD, Peloso PM, et al. Prognosis for mild traumatic brain injury: results of the WHO Collaborating Centre Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. J Rehabil Med Suppl. 2004;[36](43):84–105.

Castile L, Collins CL, McIlvain NM, Comstock RD. The epidemiology of new versus recurrent sports concussions among high school athletes, 2005-2010. Br J Sports Med. 2012;46(8):603–610.

Chew E, Zafonte RD. Pharmacological management of neurobehavioral disorders following traumatic brain injury–a state-of-the-art review. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2009;46(6):851-79.

Collins MW, Iverson GL, Lovell MR, McKeag DB, Norwig J, Maroon J. On-field predictors of neuropsychological and symptom deficit following sports-related concussion. Clin J Sport Med. 2003;13(4):222–229.

Colvin AC, Mullen J, Lovell MR, West R V, Collins MW, Groh M. The role of concussion history and gender in recovery from soccer-related concussion. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37(9):1699–1704.

Davis RL, Hughes M, Gubler KD, Waller PL, Rivara FP. The use of cranial CT scans in the triage of pediatric patients with mild head injury. Pediatrics. 1995;95(3):345–349.

de Kruijk J. Prediction of post-traumatic complaints after mild traumatic brain injury: Early symptoms and biochemical markers. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002;73(6):727–732.

Easter JS, Bakes K, Dhaliwal J, Miller M, Caruso E, Haukoos JS. Comparison of PECARN, CATCH, and CHALICE Rules for Children With Minor Head Injury: A Prospective Cohort Study. Ann Emerg Med. 2014 pii: S0196-0644(14)00092-4.

Eisenberg MA, Andrea J, Meehan W, Mannix R. Time interval between concussions and symptom duration. Pediatrics. 2013;132(1):8–17.

Falk AC, Von WL, Soderkvist BK. The specificity of post-concussive symptoms in the pediatric population. J Child Heal Care. 2009;13(3):227–238.

Fay TB, Yeates KO, Taylor HG, et al. Cognitive reserve as a moderator of postconcussive symptoms in children with complicated and uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2010;16(1):94–105.

Ferguson RJ, Mittenberg W, Barone DF, Schneider B. Postconcussion syndrome following sports-related head injury: expectation as etiology. Neuropsychology. 1999;13(4):582– 589.

Furman GR, Lin CC, Bellanca JL, Marchetti GF, Collins MW, Whitney SL. Comparison of the balance accelerometer measure and balance error scoring system in adolescent concussions in sports. Am J Sports Med. 2013;41(6):1404–1410.

Gagnon I, Forget R, Sullivan SJ, Friedman D. Motor performance following a mild traumatic brain injury in children: an exploratory study. Brain Inj. 1998;12(10):843–853.

Gagnon I, Swaine B, Champagne F, Lefebvre H. Perspectives of adolescents and their parents regarding service needs following a mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2008;22(2):161– 173.

Gagnon I, Swaine B, Friedman D, Forget R. Children show decreased dynamic balance after mild traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004;85(3):444–452.

Gagnon I, Swaine B, Friedman D, Forget R. Exploring children’s self-efficacy related to physical activity performance after a mild traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2005;20(5):436–449.

Gagnon I, Swaine B, Friedman D, Forget R. Visuomotor response time in children with a mild traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2004;19(5):391–404

Ganesalingam K, Yeates KO, Ginn MS, et al. Family burden and parental distress following mild traumatic brain injury in children and its relationship to post-concussive symptoms. J Pediatr Psychol. 2008;33(6):621–629.

Gioia GA, Collins M, Isquith PK. Improving identification and diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury with evidence: psychometric support for the acute concussion evaluation. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2008;23(4):230–242.

Gioia GA, Schneider JC, Vaughan CG, Isquith PK. Which symptom assessments and approaches are uniquely appropriate for paediatric concussion? Br J Sports Med. 2009;43 Suppl 1:i13– i22.

Glang A, Koester MC, Beaver S, Clay J, McLaughlin K. Online training in sports concussion for youth sports coaches. Int J Sports Sci Coach. 2010;5(1):1–11.

Grubenhoff JA, Kirkwood M, Gao D, Deakyne S, Wathen J. Evaluation of the standardized assessment of concussion in a pediatric emergency department. Pediatrics. 2010;126(4):688–695.

Grubenhoff JA, Kirkwood MW, Deakyne S, Wathen J. Detailed concussion symptom analysis in a paediatric ED population. Brain Inj. 2011;25(10):943–949.

Guideline Summary: Care of the patient with mild traumatic brain injury. [American Association of Neuroscience Nurses] 42. (NGC). 2011.

Guidelines for mild traumatic brain injury following closed head injury. Acute/Post-acute Assessment and Management. Clin Pract Guidel Portal. 2008.

Harvey AG, Bryant RA. Acute stress disorder after mild traumatic brain injury. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1998;186(6):333–337.

Ilie G, Mann RE, Boak A, Adlaf EM, Hamilton H, et al. (2014) Suicidality, Bullying and Other Conduct and Mental Health Correlates of Traumatic Brain Injury in Adolescents. PLoS ONE 9(4): e94936. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094936

Ilie G, Mann RE, Boak A, Adlaf EM, Hamilton H, et al. Suicidality, Bullying and Other Conduct and Mental Health Correlates of Traumatic Brain Injury in Adolescents. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(4):e94936.

Isaacman DJ, Purvis K, Gyuro J, Anderson Y, Smith D Standardized instructions: do they improve communication of discharge information from the emergency department? Pediatrics. 1992;89(6 Pt 2):1204-8.

Iverson GL, Gaetz M, Lovell MR, Collins MW. Relation between subjective fogginess and neuropsychological testing following concussion. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2004;10(6):904– 906.

Jonsson C, Andersson EE. Mild traumatic brain injury: A description of how children and youths between 16 and 18 years of age perform leisure activities after 1 year. Dev Neurorehabil. 2013;16(1):1-8.

Kaldoja ML, Kolk A. Social-emotional behaviour in infants and toddlers with mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2012;26(7-8):1005–1013.

Kaufman Y, Tzischinsky O, Epstein R, Etzioni A, Lavie P, Pillar G. Long-term sleep disturbances in adolescents after minor head injury. Pediatr Neurol. 2001;24(2):129–134.

Kirkwood MW, Yeates KO, Randolph C, Kirk JW. The implications of symptom validity test failure for ability-based test performance in a pediatric sample. Psychol Assess. 2012;24(1):36–45.

Kontos AP, Covassin T, Elbin RJ, Parker T. Depression and neurocognitive performance after concussion among male and female high school and collegiate athletes. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2012;93(10):1751–1756.

Kontos AP, Elbin RJ, Schatz P, et al. A revised factor structure for the post-concussion symptom scale: baseline and postconcussion factors. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40(10):2375–2384.

Kuczynski A, Crawford S, Bodell L, Dewey D, Barlow KM. Characteristics of post-traumatic headaches in children following mild traumatic brain injury and their response to treatment: a prospective cohort. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2013;55(7):636–641.

Kuppermann N, Holmes JF, Davan PS, et al. Identification of children at very low risk of clinically-important brain injuries after head trauma: a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2009;374(9696):1160-70.

Lau B, Lovell MR, Collins MW, Pardini J. Neurocognitive and symptom predictors of recovery in high school athletes. Clin J Sport Med. 2009;19(3):216–221.

Lau BC, Collins MW, Lovell MR. Sensitivity and specificity of subacute computerized neurocognitive testing and symptom evaluation in predicting outcomes after sports- related concussion. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39(6):1209–1216.

Lau BC, Kontos AP, Collins MW, Mucha A, Lovell MR. Which on-field signs/symptoms predict protracted recovery from sport-related concussion among high school football players? Am J Sports Med. 2011;39(11):2311–2318.

Leddy JJ, Kozlowski K, Donnelly JP, Pendergast DR, Epstein LH, Willer B. A preliminary study of subsymptom threshold exercise training for refractory post-concussion syndrome. Clin J Sport Med. 2010;20(1):21-7.

Levin HS, Hanten G, Roberson G, et al. Prediction of cognitive sequelae based on abnormal computed tomography findings in children following mild traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg. 2008;Pediatrics(6):461–470.

Lovell MR, Collins MW, Iverson GL, et al. Recovery from mild concussion in high school athletes. J Neurosurg. 2003;98(2):296–301.

Lyttle MD, Crowe L, Oakley E, Dunning J, Babi FE. Comparing CATCH, CHALICE and PECARN clinical decision rules for paediatric head injuries. Emerg Med J. 2012;29(10):785-94.

Majerske CW, Mihalik JP, Ren D, Collins MW, Reddy CC, Lovell MR, Wagner AK. Concussion in sports: postconcussive activity levels, symptoms, and neurocognitive performance. J Athl Train. 2008;43(3):265-74.

Makdissi M, Davis G, Jordan B, Patricios J, Purcell L, Putukian M. Revisiting the modifiers: how should the evaluation and management of acute concussions differ in specific groups? Br J Sports Med. 2013;47(5):314–320.

Massagli TL, Fann JR, Burington BE, Jaffe KM, Katon WJ, Thompson RS. Psychiatric illness after mild traumatic brain injury in children. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004;85(9):1428–1434.

Master CL, Gioia GA, Leddy JJ, Grady MF. Importance of ‘return-to-learn’ in pediatric and adolescent concussion. Pediatr Ann. 2012;41(9):1-6.

Max JE, Schachar RJ, Landis J, Bigler ED, Wilde EA, Saunders AE, Ewing-Cobbs L, Chapman SB, Dennis M, Hanten G, Levin HS. Psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents in the first six months after mild traumatic brain injury. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2013;25(3):187-97.

McClincy MP, Lovell MR, Pardini J, Collins MW, Spore MK. Recovery from sports concussion in high school and collegiate athletes. Brain Inj. 2006;20(1):33–39.

McCrea M, Guskiewicz K, Randolph C, Barr WB, Hammeke TA, Marshall SW, Powell MR, Woo Ahn K, Wang Y, Kelly JP. Incidence, clinical course, and predictors of prolonged recovery time following sport-related concussion in high school and college athletes. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2013;19(1):22-33.

McCrea M, Guskiewicz K, Randolph C, et al. Effects of a symptom-free waiting period on clinical outcome and risk of reinjury after sport-related concussion. Neurosurgery. 2009;65(5):876–882.

McCrea M, Kelly JP, Randolph C, Cisler R, Berger L. Immediate neurocognitive effects of concussion. Neurosurgery. 2002;50(5):1032–1040.

McCrea M, Kelly JP, Randolph C, et al. Standardized assessment of concussion (SAC): on-site mental status evaluation of the athlete. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 1998;13(2):27–35.

McCrory P1, Meeuwisse WH, Aubry M, et al. Consensus statement on concussion in sport: the 4th International Conference on Concussion in Sport held in Zurich, November 2012. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47(5):250-8.

McCrory PR, Berkovic SF. Second impact syndrome. Neurology. 1998;50(3):677–683.

McKinlay A, Grace R, Horwood J, Fergusson D, MacFarlane M. Adolescent psychiatric symptoms following preschool childhood mild traumatic brain injury: evidence from a birth cohort. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2009;24(3):221–227.

McKinlay A, Grace RC, Horwood LJ, Fergusson DM, MacFarlane MR. Long-term behavioural outcomes of pre-school mild traumatic brain injury. Child Care, Heal Dev. 2010;36(1):22– 30.

McNally KA, Bangert B, Dietrich A, et al. Injury versus noninjury factors as predictors of postconcussive symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury in children. Neuropsychology. 2013;27(1):1–12.

Meehan WP 3rd. Medical therapies for concussion. Clin Sports Med. 2011;30(1):115-24.

Mihalik JP, Stump JE, Collins MW, Lovell MR, Field M, Maroon JC. Posttraumatic migraine characteristics in athletes following sports-related concussion. J Neurosurg. 2005;102(5):850–855.

Mitchell KA, Fallat ME, Raque GH, Hardwick VG, Groff DB, Nagaraj HS. Evaluation of minor head injury in children. J Pediatr Surg. 1994;29(7):851–854.

Moser RS, Glatts C, Schatz P. Efficacy of immediate and delayed cognitive and physical rest for treatment of sports-related concussion. J Pediatr. 2012;161(5):922–926.

Moser RS, Schatz P, Jordan BD. Prolonged effects of concussion in high school athletes. Neurosurgery. 2005;57(2):300–306.

Moser RS, Schatz P. Enduring effects of concussion in youth athletes. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2002;17(1):91–100.

Olsson KA, Lloyd OT, Lebrocque RM, McKinlay L, Anderson VA, Kenardy JA. Predictors of child post-concussion symptoms at 6 and 18 months following mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2013;27(2):145–157.

Pellman EJ, Lovell MR, Viano DC, Casson IR. Concussion in professional football: Recovery of NFL and high school athletes assessed by computerized neuropsychological testing – Part 12. Neurosurgery. 2006;58(2):263–272.

Pickering A, Harnan S, Fitzgerald P, Pandor A, Goodacre S. Clinical decision rules for children with minor head injury: a systematic review. Arch Dis Child. 2011;96(5):414-21.

Piland SG, Motl RW, Guskiewicz KM, McCrea M, Ferrara MS. Structural validity of a self-report concussion-related symptom scale. Med Sci Sport Exerc. 2006;38(1):27–32.

Ponsford J, Willmott C, Rothwell A, et al. Cognitive and behavioral outcome following mild traumatic head injury in children. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 1999;14(4):360–372.

Ponsford J, Willmott C, Rothwell A, et al. Impact of early intervention on outcome after mild traumatic brain injury in children. Pediatrics. 2001;108(6):1297–1303.

Preece MH, Geffen GM, Horswill MS. Return-to-driving expectations following mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2013;27(1):83–91.

Preece MH, Horswill MS, Geffen GM. Driving after concussion: the acute effect of mild traumatic brain injury on drivers’ hazard perception. Neuropsychology. 2010;24(4):493– 503.

Purcell L. What are the most appropriate return-to-play guidelines for concussed child athletes? Br J Sports Med. 2009;43 Suppl 1:i51–i55.

Raleigh MF, O’Connor FG. Current concepts in concussion: evaluation and management. Am Fam Physician. 2012;85(2):123–132.

Randolph C, Millis S, Barr WB, et al. Concussion Symptom Inventory: An empirically derived scale for monitoring resolution of symptoms following sport-related concussion. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2009;24(3):219–229.

Rotarescu V, Ciurea AV. Quality of Life in Children after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Medicine and Life 2008, 1(3):307-22.

Sabini RC, Reddy CC. Concussion management and treatment considerations in the adolescent population. Phys Sportsmed. 2010;38(1):139-46.

Sady MD, Vaughan CG, Gioia GA. Psychometric Characteristics of the Postconcussion Symptom Inventory in Children and Adolescents. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2014 Apr15.

Sandel NK, Lovell MR, Kegel NE, Collins MW, Kontos AP. The relationship of symptoms and neurocognitive performance to perceived recovery from sports-related concussion among adolescent athletes. Appl Neuropsychol. 2013;Child. 2(1):64–69.

Saunders RL, Harbaugh RE. The Second Impact in Catastrophic Contact-Sports Head Trauma. JAMA. 1984;252(4):538-539.

Schatz P, Moser RS, Covassin T, Karpf R. Early indicators of enduring symptoms in high school athletes with multiple previous concussions. Neurosurgery. 2011;68(6):1562–1567.

Scorza KA, Raleigh MF, O’Connor FG. Current concepts in concussion: evaluation and management. Am Fam Physician. 2012;85(2):123–132.

Silver JM, McAllister TW, Arciniegas DB. Depression and cognitive complaints following mild traumatic brain injury. Am J Psychiatry. 2009;166(6):653-61.

Sroufe NS, Fuller DS, West BT, Singal BM, Warschausky SA, Maio RF. Postconcussive symptoms and neurocognitive function after mild traumatic brain injury in children. Pediatrics. 2010;125(6):e1331–e1339.

Swaine BR, Gagnon I, Champagne F, et al. Identifying the specific needs of adolescents after a mild traumatic brain injury: a service provider perspective. Brain Inj. 2008;22(7-8):581– 588.

Taylor HG, Dietrich A, Nuss K, et al. Post-concussive symptoms in children with mild traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychology. 2010;24(2):148–159.

Thomas DG, Collins MW, Saladino RA, Frank V, Raab J, Zuckerbraun NS. Identifying neurocognitive deficits in adolescents following concussion. Acad Emerg Med. 2011;18(3):246–254.

Valovich TC, Perrin DH, Gansneder BM. Repeat administration elicits a practice effect with the Balance Error Scoring System but not with the Standardized Assessment of Concussion in high school athletes. J Athl Train. 2003;38(1):51–56.

Vidal PG, Goodman AM, Colin A, Leddy JJ, Grady MF. Rehabilitation strategies for prolonged recovery in pediatric and adolescent concussion. Pediatr Ann. 2012;41(9):1–7.

Vos P. Mild traumatic brain injury. Eur J Neurol. 2012;19(2):191–198.

Waisman Y, Siegal N, Siegal G, Amir L, Cohen H, Mimouni M. Role of diagnosis-specific information sheets in parents’ understanding of emergency department discharge instructions. Eur J Emerg Med. 2005;12(4):159-62.

Wiebe DJ, Collins MW, Nance ML. Identification and validation of prognostic criteria for persistence of mild traumatic brain injury-related impairment in the pediatric patient. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012;28(6):498–502.

Yard EE, Comstock RD. Compliance with return to play guidelines following concussion in US high school athletes, 2005-2008. Brain Inj. 2009;23(11):888–898.

Yeates KO, Kaizar E, Rusin J, et al. Reliable change in postconcussive symptoms and its functional consequences among children with mild traumatic brain injury. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012;166(7):615–622.

Yeates KO, Luria J, Bartkowski H, Rusin J, Martin L, Bigler ED. Postconcussive symptoms in children with mild closed head injuries. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 1999;14(4):337–350.

Yeates KO, Taylor HG, Rusin J, et al. Longitudinal trajectories of postconcussive symptoms in children with mild traumatic brain injuries and their relationship to acute clinical status. Pediatrics. 2009;123(3):735–743.

Yeates KO, Taylor HG, Rusin J, et al. Premorbid child and family functioning as predictors of post-concussive symptoms in children with mild traumatic brain injuries. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2012;30(3):231–237.

Zemek RL, Farion KJ, Sampson M, McGahern C. Prognosticators of persistent symptoms following pediatric concussion: a systematic review. JAMA Pediatr. 2013;167(3):259–65.

Zemper ED. A Two-Year Prospective Study of Cerebral Concussion in American Football. Am J Sports Medicine 2003l 11: 157-172.

Zemper ED. Two-year prospective study of relative risk of a second cerebral concussion. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2003;82(9):653–659.

Zuckerman SL, Lee YM, Odom MJ, Solomon GS, Forbes JA, Sills AK. Recovery from sports-related concussion: Days to return to neurocognitive baseline in adolescents versus young adults. Surg Neurol Int. 2012;3:130. doi:10.4103/2152-7806.102945.