Research papers that support the present guideline recommendations:

Babikian, T., McArthur, D., & Asarnow, R. F. (2013). Predictors of 1-month and 1-year neurocognitive functioning from the UCLA longitudinal mild, uncomplicated, pediatric traumatic brain injury study. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 19(2), 145–154.

Bellerose, J., Bernier, A., Beaudoin, C., Gravel, J., & Beauchamp, M. H. (2017). Long-term brain-injury-specific effects following preschool mild TBI: A study of theory of mind. Neuropsychology, 31(3), 229–241.

Bernard, C. O., Ponsford, J. A., McKinlay, A., McKenzie, D., & Krieser, D. (2016). Predictors of post-concussive symptoms in young children: Injury versus non-injury related factors. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 22(8), 793–803.

Biederman, J., Feinberg, L., Chan, J., Adeyemo, B. O., Woodworth, K. Y., Panis, W., … Faraone, S. V. (2015). Mild traumatic brain injury and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in young student athletes. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 203(11), 813–819.

Bonfield, C. M., Lam, S., Lin, Y., & Greene, S. (2013). The impact of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder on recovery from mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics, 12(2), 97–102.

Brooks, B. L., Plourde, V., Beauchamp, M. H., Tang, K., Yeates, K. O., Keightley, M., … Zemek, R. (2019). Predicting Psychological Distress after Pediatric Concussion. Journal of Neurotrauma, 36(5), 679–685.

Chasle, V., Riffaud, L., Longuet, R., Martineau-Curt, M., Collet, Y., Le Fournier, L., & Pladys, P. (2016). Mild head injury and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. Child’s Nervous System, 32(12), 2357–2361.

Chrisman, S. P. D., & Richardson, L. P. (2014). Prevalence of diagnosed depression in adolescents with history of concussion. Journal of Adolescent Health, 54(5), 582–586.

Connolly, E. J., & McCormick, B. F. (2019). Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Psychopathology in Adolescence: Evidence From the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Journal of Adolescent Health, 65(1), 79–85.

Cook, N. E., Kelshaw, P. M., Caswell, S. V., & Iverson, G. L. (2019). Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Perform Differently on Pediatric Concussion Assessment. Journal of Pediatrics, 214, 168-174.e1.

Corwin, D. J., Zonfrillo, M. R., Master, C. L., Arbogast, K. B., Grady, M. F., Robinson, R. L., … Wiebe, D. J. (2014). Characteristics of Prolonged Concussion Recovery in a Pediatric Subspecialty Referral Population. The Journal of Pediatrics, 165(6), 1207–1215.

Donders, J., & DeWit, C. (2017). Parental ratings of daily behavior and child cognitive test performance after pediatric mild traumatic brain injury. Child Neuropsychology, 23(5), 554–570.

Eisenberg, M. A., Meehan, W. P., & Mannix, R. (2014). Duration and Course of Post-Concussive Symptoms. Pediatrics, 133(6), 999–1006.

Elbin, R. J., Kontos, A. P., Kegel, N., Johnson, E., Burkhart, S., & Schatz, P. (2013). Individual and combined effects of LD and ADHD on computerized neurocognitive concussion test performance: Evidence for separate norms. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 28(5), 476–484.

Ellis, M. J., Ritchie, L. J., Koltek, M., Hosain, S., Cordingley, D., Chu, S., … Russell, K. (2015). Psychiatric outcomes after pediatric sports-related concussion. Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics, 16(6), 709–718.

Gardner, R. M., Yengo-Kahn, A., Bonfield, C. M., & Solomon, G. S. (2017). Comparison of baseline and post-concussion ImPACT test scores in young athletes with stimulant-treated and untreated ADHD. Physician and Sportsmedicine, 45(1), 1–10.

Gornall, A., Takagi, M., Clarke, C., Babl, F. E., Davis, G. A., Dunne, K., … Anderson, V. (2019). Behavioral and Emotional Difficulties after Pediatric Concussion. Journal of Neurotrauma, 1–26.

Guerriero, R. M., Kuemmerle, K., Pepin, M. J., Taylor, A. M., Wolff, R., & Meehan, W. P. (2018). The Association Between Premorbid Conditions in School-Aged Children With Prolonged Concussion Recovery. Journal of Child Neurology, 33(2), 168–173.

Guo, X., Edmed, S. L., & Anderson, V. (2017). Neurocognitive predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in children 6 months after traumatic brain injury: A prospective study. Neuropsychology, 31(1), 84–92.

Hunt, A. W., Paniccia, M., Reed, N., & Keightley, M. (2016). Concussion-Like Symptoms in Child and Youth Athletes at Baseline: What Is “Typical”? Journal of Athletic Training, 51(10), 749–757.

Jimenez, N., Quistberg, A., Vavilala, M. S., Jaffe, K. M., & Rivara, F. P. (2017). Utilization of Mental Health Services After Mild Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury. Pediatrics, 139(3), e20162462.

Jones, K. M., Prah, P., Starkey, N., Theadom, A., Barker-Collo, S., Ameratunga, S., … Brown, P. (2019). Longitudinal patterns of behavior, cognition, and quality of life after mild traumatic brain injury in children: BIONIC study findings. Brain Injury, 33(7), 884–893.

Kaldoja, M.-L., & Kolk, A. (2015). Does Gender Matter? Differences in Social-Emotional Behavior Among Infants and Toddlers Before and After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Child Neurology, 30(7), 860–867.

Kirkwood, M. W., Peterson, R. L., Connery, A. K., Baker, D. A., & Forster, J. (2016). A Pilot Study Investigating Neuropsychological Consultation as an Intervention for Persistent Postconcussive Symptoms in a Pediatric Sample. Journal of Pediatrics, 169, 244–249e1.

Liou, Y. J., Wei, H. T., Chen, M. H., Hsu, J. W., Huang, K. L., Bai, Y. M., … Chen, T. J. (2018). Risk of Traumatic Brain Injury Among Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Taiwan. Journal of Adolescent Health, 63(2), 233–238.

Mac Donald, C. L., Barber, J., Wright, J., Coppel, D., De Lacy, N., Ottinger, S., … Temkin, N. (2019). Longitudinal Clinical and Neuroimaging Evaluation of Symptomatic Concussion in 10-to 14-year-old Youth Athletes. Journal of Neurotrauma, 36(2), 264–274.

Max, J. E., Friedman, K., Wilde, E. A., Bigler, E. D., Hanten, G., Schachar, R. J., … Levin, H. S. (2015). Psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents 24 months after mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 27(2), 112–120.

Max, J. E., Pardo, D., Hanten, G., Schachar, R. J., Saunders, A. E., Ewing-Cobbs, L., … Levin, H. S. (2013). Psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents six-to-twelve months after mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 25(4), 272–282.

McNally, K. A., Patrick, K. E., LaFleur, J. E., Dykstra, J. B., Monahan, K., & Hoskinson, K. R. (2018). Brief cognitive behavioral intervention for children and adolescents with persistent post-concussive symptoms: A pilot study. Child Neuropsychology, 24(3), 396–412.

Morgan, C. D., Zuckerman, S. L., Lee, Y. M., King, L., Beaird, S., Sills, A. K., & Solomon, G. S. (2015). Predictors of postconcussion syndrome after sports-related concussion in young athletes: a matched case-control study. Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics, 15(June), 589–598.

Mrazik, M., Brooks, B. L., Jubinville, A., Meeuwisse, W. H., & Emery, C. A. (2016). Psychosocial outcomes of sport concussions in youth hockey players. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 31(4), 297–304.

Nikles, C. J., McKinlay, L., Mitchell, G. K., Carmont, S. A. S., Senior, H. E., Waugh, M. C. A., … Lloyd, O. T. (2014). Aggregated n-of-1 trials of central nervous system stimulants versus placebo for paediatric traumatic brain injury – a pilot study. Trials, 15(1), 1–11.

Peterson, R. L., Connery, A. K., Baker, D. A., & Kirkwood, M. W. (2015). Preinjury Emotional-Behavioral Functioning of Children With Lingering Problems After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 27(4), 280–286.

Plourde, V., Daya, H., Low, T. A., Barlow, K. M., & Brooks, B. L. (2019). Evaluating anxiety and depression symptoms in children and adolescents with prior mild traumatic brain injury: Agreement between methods and respondents. Child Neuropsychology, 25(1), 44–59.

Plourde, V., Yeates, K. O., & Brooks, B. L. (2018). Predictors of long-term psychosocial functioning and health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with prior concussions. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 24(6), 540–548.

Poysophon, P., & Rao, A. L. (2018). Neurocognitive Deficits Associated With ADHD in Athletes: A Systematic Review. Sports Health, 10(4), 317–326.

Reddy, C. C., Collins, M., Lovell, M., & Kontos, A. P. (2013). Efficacy of amantadine treatment on symptoms and neurocognitive performance among adolescents following sports-related concussion. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 28(4), 260–265.

Rieger, B. P., Lewandowski, L. J., Callahan, J. M., Spenceley, L., Truckenmiller, A., Gathje, R., & Miller, L. A. (2013). A prospective study of symptoms and neurocognitive outcomes in youth with concussion vs orthopaedic injuries. Brain Injury, 27(2), 169–178.

Root, J. M., Zuckerbraun, N. S., Wang, L., Winger, D. G., Brent, D., Kontos, A., & Hickey, R. W. (2016). History of Somatization Is Associated with Prolonged Recovery from Concussion. Journal of Pediatrics, 174, 39–44.e1.

Ryan, N. P., van Bijnen, L., Catroppa, C., Beauchamp, M. H., Crossley, L., Hearps, S., & Anderson, V. (2016). Longitudinal outcome and recovery of social problems after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI): Contribution of brain insult and family environment. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 49, 23–30.

Salinas, C. M., Dean, P., LoGalbo, A., Dougherty, M., Field, M., & Webbe, F. M. (2016). Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Status and Baseline Neurocognitive Performance in High School Athletes. Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 5(4), 264–272.

Segev, S., Shorer, M., Rassovsky, Y., Peleg, T. P., Apter, A., & Fennig, S. (2016). The contribution of posttraumatic stress disorder and mild traumatic brain injury to persistent post concussive symptoms following motor vehicle accidents. Neuropsychology, 30(7), 800–810.

Stazyk, K., DeMatteo, C., Moll, S., & Missiuna, C. (2017). Depression in youth recovering from concussion: Correlates and predictors. Brain Injury, 31(5), 631–638.

Stein, E., Howard, W., Rowhani-Rahbar, A., Rivara, F. P., Zatzick, D., & McCarty, C. A. (2017). Longitudinal trajectories of post-concussive and depressive symptoms in adolescents with prolonged recovery from concussion. Brain Injury, 31(13–14), 1736–1744.

Truss, K., Godfrey, C., Takagi, M., Babl, F. E., Bressan, S., Hearps, S., … Anderson, V. (2017). Trajectories and Risk Factors for Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms following Pediatric Concussion. Journal of Neurotrauma, 34(14), 2272–2279.

Yang, M. N., Clements-Nolle, K., Parrish, B., & Yang, W. (2019). Adolescent concussion and mental health outcomes: A population-based study. American Journal of Health Behavior, 43(2), 258–265.

Yengo-Kahn, A. M., & Solomon, G. (2015). Are psychotropic medications associated with differences in baseline neurocognitive assessment scores for young athletes? A pilot study. Physician and Sportsmedicine, 43(3), 227–235.

Last update: November 16, 2019