Research papers that support the present guideline recommendations:

Babcock, L., Byczkowski, T., Wade, S. L., Ho, M., Mookerjee, S., & Bazarian, J. J. (2013). Predicting postconcussion syndrome after mild traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents who present to the emergency department. JAMA Pediatrics, 167(2), 156–161.

Bock, S., Grim, R., Barron, T. F., Wagenheim, A., Hu, Y. E., Hendell, M., … Deibert, E. (2015). Factors associated with delayed recovery in athletes with concussion treated at a pediatric neurology concussion clinic. Child’s Nervous System, 31(11), 2111–2116.

Bramley, H., Heverley, S., Lewis, M. M., Kong, L., Rivera, R., & Silvis, M. (2015). Demographics and Treatment of Adolescent Posttraumatic Headache in a Regional Concussion Clinic. Pediatric Neurology, 52(5), 493–498.

Bresee, N., Aglipay, M., Dubrovsky, A. S., Ledoux, A. A., Momoli, F., Gravel, J., … Zemek, R. (2018). No association between metoclopramide treatment in ED and reduced risk of post-concussion headache. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 36(12), 2225–2231.

Chan, S., Kurowski, B., Byczkowski, T., & Timm, N. (2015). Intravenous migraine therapy in children with posttraumatic headache in the ED. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 33(5), 635–639.

Dubrovsky, A. S., Friedman, D., & Kocilowicz, H. (2014). Pediatric post-traumatic headaches and peripheral nerve blocks of the scalp: A case series and patient satisfaction survey. Headache, 54(5), 878–887.

Eckner, J. T., Seifert, T., Pescovitz, A., Zeiger, M., & Kutcher, J. S. (2017). Is migraine headache associated with concussion in athletes? A case-control study. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 27(3), 266–270.

Eisenberg, M. A., Meehan, W. P., & Mannix, R. (2014). Duration and Course of Post-Concussive Symptoms. Pediatrics, 133(6), 999–1006.

Ellis, M. J., Cordingley, D., Girardin, R., Ritchie, L., & Johnston, J. (2017). Migraine with aura or sports-related concussion: Case report, pathophysiology, and multidisciplinary approach to management. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 16(1), 14–18.

Ellis, M.J., Leddy, J., Willer, B. (2016) Multi-disciplinary management of athletes with post-concussion syndrome: An evolving pathophysiological approach. Frontiers in Neurology. 7(AUG),136.

Grool, A. M., Aglipay, M., Momoli, F., Meehan, W. P., Freedman, S. B., Yeates, K. O., … Zemek, R. (2016). Association Between Early Participation in Physical Activity Following Acute Concussion and Persistent Postconcussive Symptoms in Children and Adolescents. Jama, 316(23), 2504.

Heyer, G. L., & Idris, S. A. (2014). Does analgesic overuse contribute to chronic post-traumatic headaches in adolescent concussion patients? Pediatric Neurology, 50(5), 464–468.

Heyer, G. L., Young, J. A., Rose, S. C., McNally, K. A., & Fischer, A. N. (2015). Post-traumatic headaches correlate with migraine symptoms in youth with concussion. Cephalalgia, 36(4), 309–316.

Kacperski, J., Kabbouche, M.A., O’brien, H.L., Weberding, J.L. (2016). The optimal management of headaches in children and adolescents. Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders. 9(1),53-68.

Kontos, A. P., Elbin, R. J., Lau, B., Simensky, S., Freund, B., French, J., & Collins, M. W. (2013). Posttraumatic migraine as a predictor of recovery and cognitive impairment after sport-related concussion. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 41(7), 1497–1504.

Kuczynski, A., Crawford, S., Bodell, L., Dewey, D., & Barlow, K. M. (2013). Characteristics of post-traumatic headaches in children following mild traumatic brain injury and their response to treatment: A prospective cohort. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 55(7), 636–641.

Linden, M. (2015). The Effects of QEEG-Guided Neurofeedback on Postconcussion Syndrome. Biofeedback, 43(1), 42–44.

Lumba-Brown, A., Harley, J., Lucio, S., Vaida, F., & Hilfiker, M. (2014). Hypertonic Saline as a Therapy for Pediatric Concussive Pain. Pediatric Emergency Care, 30(3), 139–145.

McConnell, B., Duffield, T., Hall, T., Piantino, J., Seitz, D., Soden, D., & Williams, C. (2019). Post-traumatic Headache After Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Association With Neurocognitive Outcomes. Journal of Child Neurology, 35(1), 63–70.

McEvoy, H., Borsook, D., & Holmes, S. A. (2019). Clinical features and sex differences in pediatric post-traumatic headache: A retrospective chart review at a Boston area concussion clinic. Cephalalgia, 0(0), 1–11.

Mihalik, J. P., Register-Mihalik, J., Kerr, Z. Y., Marshall, S. W., McCrea, M. C., & Guskiewicz, K. M. (2013). Recovery of posttraumatic migraine characteristics in patients after mild traumatic brain injury. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 41(7), 1490–1496.

Morgan, C. D., Zuckerman, S. L., Lee, Y. M., King, L., Beaird, S., Sills, A. K., & Solomon, G. S. (2015). Predictors of postconcussion syndrome after sports-related concussion in young athletes: a matched case-control study. Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics, 15(June), 589–598.

Page, P. (2011). Cervicogenic headaches: an evidence-led approach to clinical management. International journal of sports physical therapy. 6(3),254-266.

Pasek, T. A., Locasto, L. W., Reichard, J., Fazio Sumrok, V. C., Johnson, E. W., & Kontos, A. P. (2015). The headache electronic diary for children with concussion. Clinical Nurse Specialist, 29(2), 80–88.

Pearson, R., Levyim, D., Choe, M., Taraman, S., & Langdon, R. (2019). Survey of Child Neurologists on Management of Pediatric Post-traumatic Headache. Journal of Child Neurology, 34(12), 739–747.

Schneider, K. J., Meeuwisse, W. H., Nettel-Aguirre, A., Barlow, K., Boyd, L., Kang, J., & Emery, C. A. (2014). Cervicovestibular rehabilitation in sport-related concussion: a randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48(17), 1294–1298.

Seeger, T. A., Orr, S., Bodell, L., Lockyer, L., Rajapakse, T., & Barlow, K. M. (2015). Occipital nerve blocks for pediatric posttraumatic headache: A case series. Journal of Child Neurology, 30(9), 1142–1146.

Seifert, T.D. (2013) Sports concussion and associated post-traumatic headache. Headache. 53(5),726-736.

Shaw, L., Morozova, M., & Abu-Arafeh, I. (2018). Chronic post-traumatic headache in children and adolescents: systematic review of prevalence and headache features. Pain Management, 8(1), 57–64.

Starling, A.J., Vargas, B.B. (2015). A Narrative Review of Evidence-Based Preventive Options for Chronic Migraine. Current Pain and Headache Reports. 19(10),49.

Sufrinko, A., McAllister-Deitrick, J., Elbin, R., Collins, M. W., & Kontos, A. P. (2018). Family History of Migraine Associated with Posttraumatic Migraine Symptoms Following Sport-Related Concussion. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 33(1), 7–14.

Sussman, W. I., Mautner, K., Mason, R. A., Bonecutter, K., & Shealy, A. K. (2017). Sphenopalatine ganglion block for management of refractory chronic posttraumatic headaches after a sport-related concussion. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 27(2), e6–e8.

The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta version). (2013) Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache. 33(9),629-808.

Zaremski, J. L., Herman, D. C., Clugston, J. R., Hurley, R. W., & Ahn, A. H. (2015). Occipital neuralgia as a sequela of sports concussion: A case series and review of the literature. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 14(1), 16–19.


Research papers not associated with a current recommendation

Mannix, R., Zemek, R., Yeates, K. O., Arbogast, K., Atabaki, S., Badawy, M., … Wisniewski, S. (2019). Practice patterns in pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies for children with mild traumatic brain injury: A survey of 15 canadian and United States centers. Journal of Neurotrauma, 36(20), 2886–2894.

Papers being considered (January 2021 update):

Cushman DM, Borowski L, Hansen C, et al. Gabapentin and Tricyclics in the Treatment of Post-Concussive Headache, a Retrospective Cohort Study. Headache [Internet]. 2019 Mar 1;59(3):371–82. Available from:

Kwan V, Plourde V, Yeates KO, et al. Headache long after pediatric concussion: presence, intensity, interference, and association with cognition. Brain Inj [Internet]. 2020 Mar 20;34(4):575–82. Available from:

McEvoy H, Borsook D, Holmes SA. Clinical features and sex differences in pediatric post-traumatic headache: A retrospective chart review at a Boston area concussion clinic. Cephalalgia [Internet]. 2020 Jun 22;40(7):701–11. Available from:

Terry DP, Reddi PJ, Cook NE, et al. Acute Effects of Concussion in Youth With Pre-existing Migraines. Clin J Sport Med [Internet]. 2019 Nov 26;Publish Ah. Available from: