Research papers that support the present guideline recommendations:

Abeare, C. A., Messa, I., Zuccato, B. G., Merker, B., & Erdodi, L. (2018). Prevalence of invalid performance on baseline testing for sport-related concussion by age and validity indicator. JAMA Neurology, 75(6), 697–703.

Anthony, C. A., & Peterson, A. R. (2015). Utilization of a text-messaging robot to assess intraday variation in concussion symptom severity scores. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 25(2), 149–152.

Araujo, G. C., Antonini, T. N., Monahan, K., Gelfius, C., Klamar, K., Potts, M., … Bodin, D. (2014). The relationship between suboptimal effort and post-concussion symptoms in children and adolescents with mild traumatic brain injury. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 28(5), 786–801.

Baker, D. A., Connery, A. K., Kirk, J. W., & Kirkwood, M. W. (2014). Embedded performance validity indicators within the california verbal learning test, childrens version. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 28(1), 116–127.

Brett, B. L., & Solomon, G. S. (2017). The influence of validity criteria on Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) test–retest reliability among high school athletes. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 39(3), 286–295.

Brett, B. L., Smyk, N., Solomon, G., Baughman, B. C., & Schatz, P. (2016). Long-term Stability and Reliability of Baseline Cognitive Assessments in High School Athletes Using ImPACT at 1-, 2-, and 3-year Test–Retest Intervals. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, (August), 904–914.

Brooks, B. L., Iverson, G. L., Atkins, J. E., Zafonte, R., & Berkner, P. D. (2016). Sex Differences and Self-Reported Attention Problems During Baseline Concussion Testing. Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 5(2), 119–126.

Brooks, B. L., Mannix, R., Maxwell, B., Zafonte, R., Berkner, P. D., & Iverson, G. L. (2016). Multiple Past Concussions in High School Football Players. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(12), 3243–3251.

Brooks, B. L., McKay, C. D., Mrazik, M., Barlow, K. M., Meeuwisse, W. H., & Emery, C. A. (2013). Subjective, but not Objective, Lingering Effects of Multiple Past Concussions in Adolescents. Journal of Neurotrauma, 30(17), 1469–1475.

Brooks, M. A., Snedden, T. R., Mixis, B., Hetzel, S., & McGuine, T. A. (2017). Establishing baseline normative values for the child sport concussion assessment tool. JAMA Pediatrics, 171(7), 670–677.

Chin, E. Y., Nelson, L. D., Barr, W. B., McCrory, P., & McCrea, M. A. (2016). Reliability and validity of the sport concussion assessment tool-3 (SCAT3) in high school and collegiate athletes. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(9), 2276–2285.

Collings, L. J., Cook, N. E., Porter, S., Kusch, C., Sun, J., Virji-Babul, N., … Panenka, W. J. (2017). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is associated with baseline child sport concussion assessment tool third edition scores in child hockey players. Brain Injury, 31(11), 1479–1485.

Cook, N. E., Huang, D. S., Silverberg, N. D., Brooks, B. L., Maxwell, B., Zafonte, R., … Iverson, G. L. (2017). Baseline cognitive test performance and concussion-like symptoms among adolescent athletes with ADHD: examining differences based on medication use. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 31(8), 1341–1352.

Cook, N. E., Kelshaw, P. M., Caswell, S. V., & Iverson, G. L. (2019). Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Perform Differently on Pediatric Concussion Assessment. Journal of Pediatrics, 214, 168-174.e1.

Covassin, T., Crutcher, B., & Wallace, J. (2013). Does a 20 minute cognitive task increase concussion symptoms in concussed athletes? Brain Injury, 27(13–14), 1589–1594.

Custer, A., Sufrinko, A., Elbin, R. J., Covassin, T., Collins, M., & Kontos, A. (2016). High baseline postconcussion symptom scores and concussion outcomes in athletes. Journal of Athletic Training, 51(2), 136–141.

Davis, G. A., Purcell, L., Schneider, K. J., Yeates, K. O., Gioia, G. A., Anderson, V., … Kutcher, J. S. (2017). The Child Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 5th Edition (Child SCAT5): Background and rationale. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 51(11), 859–861.

Elbin, R. J., Kontos, A. P., Kegel, N., Johnson, E., Burkhart, S., & Schatz, P. (2013). Individual and combined effects of LD and ADHD on computerized neurocognitive concussion test performance: Evidence for separate norms. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 28(5), 476–484.

Gardner, R. M., Yengo-Kahn, A., Bonfield, C. M., & Solomon, G. S. (2017). Comparison of baseline and post-concussion ImPACT test scores in young athletes with stimulant-treated and untreated ADHD. Physician and Sportsmedicine, 45(1), 1–10.

Gidley Larson, J. C., Flaro, L., Peterson, R. L., Connery, A. K., Baker, D. A., & Kirkwood, M. W. (2015). The medical symptom validity test measures effort not ability in children: A comparison between mild TBI and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder samples. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 30(3), 192–199.

Glaviano, N. R., Benson, S., Goodkin, H. P., Broshek, D. K., & Saliba, S. (2015). Baseline SCAT2 Assessment of Healthy Youth Student-Athletes: Preliminary Evidence for the Use of the Child-SCAT3 in Children Younger Than 13 Years. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 25(4), 373–379.

Gorman, M., Hecht, S., Samborski, A., Lunos, S., Elias, S., & Stovitz, S. D. (2017). SCAT3 assessment of non-head injured and head injured athletes competing in a large international youth soccer tournament. Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 6(4), 364–368.

Green, C. M., Kirk, J. W., Connery, A. K., Baker, D. A., & Kirkwood, M. W. (2014). The use of the Rey 15-Item Test and recognition trial to evaluate noncredible effort after pediatric mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 36(3), 261–267.

Haider, M. N., Leddy, J. J., Pavlesen, S., Kluczynski, M., Baker, J. G., Miecznikowski, J. C., & Willer, B. S. (2018). A systematic review of criteria used to define recovery from sport-related concussion in youth athletes. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 52(18), 1179–1190.

Higgins, K. L., Denney, R. L., & Maerlender, A. (2017). Sandbagging on the immediate post-concussion assessment and cognitive testing (impact) in a high school athlete population. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 32(3), 259–266.

Iverson, G. L., Silverberg, N. D., Mannix, R., Maxwell, B. A., Atkins, J. E., Zafonte, R., & Berkner, P. D. (2015). Factors associated with concussion-like symptom reporting in high school athletes. JAMA Pediatrics, 169(12), 1132–1140.

Kirk, J. W., Hutaff-Lee, C. F., Connery, A. K., Baker, D. A., & Kirkwood, M. W. (2014). The Relationship Between the Self-Report BASC-2 Validity Indicators and Performance Validity Test Failure After Pediatric Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Assessment, 21(5), 562–569.

Kirkwood, M. W., Peterson, R. L., Connery, A. K., Baker, D. A., & Grubenhoff, J. A. (2014). Postconcussive Symptom Exaggeration After Pediatric Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Pediatrics, 133(4), 643–650.

Kuhn, A. W., & Solomon, G. S. (2014). Supervision and computerized neurocognitive baseline test performance in high school athletes: An initial investigation. Journal of Athletic Training, 49(6), 800–805.

Lichtenstein, J. D., Moser, R. S., & Schatz, P. (2014). Age and test setting affect the prevalence of invalid baseline scores on neurocognitive tests. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 42(2), 479–484.

Liller, K. D., Morris, B., Fillion, J., Yang, Y., & Bubu, O. M. (2017). Analysis of baseline computerized neurocognitive testing results among 5-11-year-old male and female children playing sports in recreational leagues in Florida. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(9).

Lovell, M. R., & Solomon, G. S. (2013). Neurocognitive test performance and symptom reporting in cheerleaders with concussions. Journal of Pediatrics, 163(4), 1192–1195.e1.

MacDonald, J., & Duerson, D. (2015). Reliability of a Computerized Neurocognitive Test in Baseline Concussion Testing of High School Athletes. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 25(4), 367–372.

Mannix, R., Iverson, G. L., Maxwell, B., Atkins, J. E., Zafonte, R., & Berkner, P. D. (2014). Multiple prior concussions are associated with symptoms in high school athletes. Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology, 1(6), 433–438.

McGrath, N., Dinn, W. M., Collins, M. W., Lovell, M. R., Elbin, R. J., & Kontos, A. P. (2013). Post-exertion neurocognitive test failure among student-athletes following concussion. Brain Injury, 27(1), 103–113.

McKay, C. D., Schneider, K. J., Brooks, B. L., Mrazik, M., & Emery, C. A. (2014). Baseline Evaluation in Youth Ice Hockey Players: Comparing Methods for Documenting Prior Concussions and Attention or Learning Disorders. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 44(5), 329–335.

Moran, R. N., & Covassin, T. (2018). King-Devick test normative reference values and internal consistency in youth football and soccer athletes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 28(12), 2686–2690.

Moser, R. S., Olek, L., & Schatz, P. (2019). Gender Differences in Symptom Reporting on Baseline Sport Concussion Testing Across the Youth Age Span. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology : The Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists, 34(1), 50–59.

Moser, R. S., Schatz, P., Grosner, E., & Kollias, K. (2017). One year test–retest reliability of neurocognitive baseline scores in 10- to 12-year olds. Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 6(2), 166–171.

Nelson, L. D., Laroche, A. A., Pfaller, A. Y., Lerner, E. B., Hammeke, T. A., Randolph, C., … McCrea, M. A. (2015). Prospective, head-to-head study of three computerized neurocognitive assessment tools (CNTs): Reliability and validity for the assessment of sport-related concussion. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 22(1), 24–37.

Nelson, L. D., Loman, M. M., LaRoche, A. A., Furger, R. E., & McCrea, M. A. (2017). Baseline Performance and Psychometric Properties of the Child Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (Child-SCAT3) in 5- to 13-year-old Athletes. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 27(4), 381–387.

Nelson, L. D., Pfaller, A. Y., Rein, L. E., & McCrea, M. A. (2015). Rates and Predictors of Invalid Baseline Test Performance in High School and Collegiate Athletes for 3 Computerized Neurocognitive Tests: NAM,Axon Sports, and ImPACT. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(8), 2018–2026.

Newcomer, R. R., & Perna, F. M. (2003). Adolescent Athletes. Journal of Athletic Training, 38(2), 163–166.

Ott, S., Schatz, P., Solomon, G., & Ryan, J. J. (2014). Neurocognitive performance and symptom profiles of spanish-speaking hispanic athletes on the impact test. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 29(2), 152–163.

Pawlukiewicz, A., Yengo-Kahn, A. M., & Solomon, G. (2017). The effect of pretest exercise on baseline computerized neurocognitive test scores. Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 5(10), 1–6.

Peltonen, K., Vartiainen, M., Laitala-Leinonen, T., Koskinen, S., Luoto, T., Pertab, J., & Hokkanen, L. (2019). Adolescent athletes with learning disability display atypical maturational trajectories on concussion baseline testing: Implications based on a Finnish sample. Child Neuropsychology, 25(3), 336–351.

Porter, S., Smith-Forrester, J., Alhajri, N., Kusch, C., Sun, J., Barrable, B., … Virji-Babul, N. (2017). The Child Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (Child SCAT3): Normative values and correspondence between child and parent symptom scores in male child athletes. BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine, 3(1), 1–6.

Reesman, J., Pineda, J., Carver, J., Brice, P. J., Andrew Zabel, T., & Schatz, P. (2016). Utility of the ImPACT test with deaf adolescents. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 30(2), 318–327.

Reynolds, E., Fazio, V. C., Sandel, N., Schatz, P., & Henry, L. C. (2016). Cognitive Development and the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing: A Case for Separate Norms in Preadolescents. Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 5(4), 283–293.

Rieger, B. P., Lewandowski, L. J., Callahan, J. M., Spenceley, L., Truckenmiller, A., Gathje, R., & Miller, L. A. (2013). A prospective study of symptoms and neurocognitive outcomes in youth with concussion vs orthopaedic injuries. Brain Injury, 27(2), 169–178.

Sandel, N. K., Worts, P. R., Burkhart, S., & Henry, L. (2018). Comparison of baseline ImPACT performance in amateur motocross riders to football and basketball athletes. Brain Injury, 32(4), 493–497.

Schatz, P., & Robertshaw, S. (2014). Comparing post-concussive neurocognitive test data to normative data presents risks for under-classifying “above average” athletes. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 29(7), 625–632.

Schatz, P., Kelley, T., Ott, S. D., Solomon, G. S., Elbin, R. J., Higgins, K., & Moser, R. S. (2014). Utility of repeated assessment after invalid baseline neurocognitive test performance. Journal of Athletic Training, 49(5), 659–664.

Snedden, T. R., Brooks, M. A., Hetzel, S., & McGuine, T. (2017). Normative Values of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3) in High School Athletes. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 27(5), 462–467.

Snyder, A. R., & Bauer, R. M. (2014). A normative study of the sport concussion assessment tool (SCAT2) in children and adolescents. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 28(7), 1091–1103.

Tomczyk, C. P., Mormile, M., Wittenberg, M. S., Langdon, J. L., & Hunt, T. N. (2018). An examination of adolescent athletes and nonathletes on baseline neuropsychological test scores. Journal of Athletic Training, 53(4), 404–409.

Tsushima, W. T., Shirakawa, N., & Geling, O. (2013). Neurocognitive functioning and symptom reporting of high school athletes following a single concussion. Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 2(1), 13–16.

Tsushima, W. T., Siu, A. M., Pearce, A. M., Zhang, G., & Oshiro, R. S. (2016). Two-year Test-Retest Reliability of ImPACT in High School Athletes. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 31(1), 105–111.

Tsushima, W. T., Tsushima, V. G., Oshiro, R. O., & Murata, N. M. (2017). Role of Native Language in Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) of Youth Athletes. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 32(4), 450–455.

Vaughan, C. G., Gerst, E. H., Sady, M. D., Newman, J. B., & Gioia, G. A. (2014). The relation between testing environment and baseline performance in child and adolescent concussion assessment. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 42(7), 1716–1723.

Vernau, B. T., Grady, M. F., Goodman, A., Wiebe, D. J., Basta, L., Park, Y., … Master, C. L. (2015). Oculomotor and neurocognitive assessment of youth ice hockey players: Baseline associations and observations after concussion. Developmental Neuropsychology, 40(1), 7–11.

Womble, M. N., Reynolds, E., Schatz, P., Shah, K. M., & Kontos, A. P. (2016). Test-Retest reliability of computerized neurocognitive testing in youth ice hockey players. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 31(4), 305–312.

Yengo-Kahn, A. M., & Solomon, G. (2015). Are psychotropic medications associated with differences in baseline neurocognitive assessment scores for young athletes? A pilot study. Physician and Sportsmedicine, 43(3), 227–235.

Zalneraitis, B. H., Yengo-Kahn, A. M., Pawlukiewicz, A. J., & Solomon, G. S. (2017). Self-reported history of seizure and baseline neurocognitive test performance in student-athletes: an initial investigation. Physician and Sportsmedicine, 45(4), 470–474.

Date of last update: November 16, 2019