Research papers that support the present guideline recommendations:

Boutis, K., Weerdenburg, K., Koo, E., Schneeweiss, S., & Zemek, R. (2015). The diagnosis of concussion in a pediatric emergency department. Journal of Pediatrics, 166(5), 1214–1220.e1.

Bramley, H., McFarland, C., Lewis, M. M., Shaffer, M. L., Cilley, R., Engbrecht, B., … Dias, M. S. (2014). Short-term outcomes of sport- and recreation-related concussion in patients admitted to a pediatric trauma service. Clinical Pediatrics, 53(8), 784–790.

Clark R, Stanfill AG. A Systematic Review of Barriers and Facilitators for Concussion Reporting Behavior among Student Athletes. Vol. 26, Journal of Trauma Nursing. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2019. p. 297–311.

DePadilla PhD L, Miller PhD GF, Everett Jones PhD, MPH, JD S. Characteristics of Schools with Youth Sports Concussion-Related Educational Policies and Practices. J Sch Health. 2020;90(7):520–6.

Donnell, Z., Hoffman, R., Sarmiento, K., & Hays, C. (2018). Concussion attitudes, behaviors, and education among youth ages 12–17: Results from the 2014 YouthStyles survey. Journal of Safety Research, 64, 163–169.

Elbin, R. J., Sufrinko, A., Schatz, P., French, J., Henry, L., Burkhart, S., … Kontos, A. P. (2016). Removal From Play After Concussion and Recovery Time. Pediatrics, 138(3), e20160910–e20160910.

Feiss R, Lutz M, Reiche E, et al. A systematic review of the effectiveness of concussion education programs for coaches and parents of youth athletes. Vol. 17, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. MDPI AG; 2020.

Fremont P, Schneider K, Laroche A, et al. Could a massive open online course be part of the solution to sport-related concussion? Participation and impact among 8368 registrants. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med. 2020;6(1):1–7.

Howell, D. R., OʼBrien, M. J., Fraser, J., & Meehan, W. P. (2018). Continuing Play, Symptom Severity, and Symptom Duration After Concussion in Youth Athletes. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 0(0), 1.

Linder, S. M., Cruickshank, J., Zimmerman, N. M., Figler, R., & Alberts, J. L. (2019). A technology-enabled electronic incident report to document and facilitate management of sport concussion: A cohort study of youth and young adults. Medicine, 98(14), e14948.

Matveev, R., Sergio, L., Fraser-Thomas, J., & Macpherson, A. K. (2018). Trends in concussions at Ontario schools prior to and subsequent to the introduction of a concussion policy – An analysis of the Canadian hospitals injury reporting and prevention program from 2009 to 2016. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 1–10.

McCart, M., Glang, A. E., Slocumb, J., Gau, J., Beck, L., & Gomez, D. (2019). A quasi-experimental study examining the effects of online traumatic brain injury professional development on educator knowledge, application, and efficacy in a practitioner setting. Disability and Rehabilitation, 0(0), 1–7.

McGuine, T. A., Pfaller, A. Y., Post, E. G., Hetzel, S. J., Brooks, A., & Broglio, S. P. (2018). The influence of athletic trainers on the incidence and management of concussions in high school athletes. Journal of Athletic Training, 53(11), 1017–1024.

Mckinlay, A., Ligteringen, V., & Than, M. (2014). A comparison of concussive symptoms reported by parents for preschool versus school-aged children. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 29(3), 233–238.

Shendell, D. G., Gonzalez, L., Listwan, T. A., Pancella, J., Blackborow, M., & Boyd, J. (2019). Developing and Piloting a School-Based Online Adolescent Student-Athlete Concussion Surveillance System. Journal of School Health, 89(7), 527–535.

Taubman, B., Rosen, F., McHugh, J., Grady, M. F., & Elci, O. U. (2016). The Timing of Cognitive and Physical Rest and Recovery in Concussion. Journal of Child Neurology, 31(14), 1555–1560.

Terwilliger, V. K., Pratson, L., Vaughan, C. G., & Gioia, G. A. (2016). Additional Post-Concussion Impact Exposure May Affect Recovery in Adolescent Athletes. Journal of Neurotrauma, 33(8), 761–765.

Zynda AJ, Sabatino MJ, Ellis HB, et al. Continued play following sport-related concussion in United States youth soccer. Int J Exerc Sci [Internet]. 2020;13(6):87–100. Available from:

Research papers not associated with a current recommendation:

Dobney, D. M., Grilli, L., Kocilowicz, H., Beaulieu, C., Straub, M., Friedman, D., & Gagnon, I. J. (2018). Is There an Optimal Time to Initiate an Active Rehabilitation Protocol for Concussion Management in Children? A Case Series. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 33(3), E11–E17.

Jones, K. M., Barker-Collo, S., Parmar, P., Starkey, N., Theadom, A., Ameratunga, S., & Feigin, V. L. (2018). Trajectories in health recovery in the 12 months following a mild traumatic brain injury in children: Findings from the BIONIC Study. Journal of Primary Health Care, 10(1), 81–89.

Date of last update: January 4, 2021