Research papers that support the present guideline recommendations:

Babcock, L., Byczkowski, T., Wade, S. L., Ho, M., & Bazarian, J. J. (2013). Inability of S100B to predict postconcussion syndrome in children who present to the emergency department with mild traumatic brain injury: A brief report. Pediatric Emergency Care, 29(4), 458–461.

Bazarian, J. J., Blyth, B. J., He, H., Mookerjee, S., Jones, C., Kiechle, K., … Khan, J. (2013). Classification Accuracy of Serum Apo A-I and S100B for the Diagnosis of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Prediction of Abnormal Initial Head Computed Tomography Scan. Journal of Neurotrauma, 30(20), 1747–1754.

Białuńska, A., & Salvatore, A. P. (2017). The auditory comprehension changes over time after sport-related concussion can indicate multisensory processing dysfunctions. Brain and Behavior, 7(12), 1–8.

Broglio, S. P., Williams, R., Lapointe, A., Rettmann, A., Moore, B., Meehan, S. K., & Eckner, J. T. (2017). Brain network activation technology does not assist with concussion diagnosis and return to play in football athletes. Frontiers in Neurology, 8(JUN).

Delefortrie, Q., Lejeune, F., Kerzmann, B., Levy, R., Adam, J. F., Sottiaux, T., … Hachimi-Idrissi, S. (2018). Evaluation of the Roche® Elecsys and the Diasorin® Liaison S100 kits in the management of mild head injury in the emergency room. Clinical Biochemistry, 52(November 2017), 123–130.

Kraus, N., Thompson, E. C., Krizman, J., Cook, K., White-Schwoch, T., & LaBella, C. R. (2016). Auditory biological marker of concussion in children. Scientific Reports, 6(August), 1–10.

Little, C. E., Emery, C., Scott, S. H., Meeuwisse, W., Palacios-Derflingher, L., & Dukelow, S. P. (2016). Do children and adolescent ice hockey players with and without a history of concussion differ in robotic testing of sensory, motor and cognitive function? Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 13(1), 1–19.

Lugones, M., Parkin, G., Bjelosevic, S., Takagi, M., Clarke, C., Anderson, V., & Ignjatovic, V. (2018). Blood biomarkers in paediatric mild traumatic brain injury: a systematic review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 87(January), 206–217.

Manzano, S., Holzinger, I. B., Kellenberger, C. J., Lacroix, L., Klima-Lange, D., Hersberger, M., … Staubli, G. (2016). Diagnostic performance of S100B protein serum measurement in detecting intracranial injury in children with mild head trauma. Emergency Medicine Journal, 33(1), 42–46.

Meier, T. B., Nelson, L. D., Huber, D. L., Bazarian, J. J., Hayes, R. L., & McCrea, M. A. (2017). Prospective Assessment of Acute Blood Markers of Brain Injury in Sport-Related Concussion. Journal of Neurotrauma, 1, neu.2017.5046.

Munia, T. T. K., Haider, A., Schneider, C., Romanick, M., & Fazel-Rezai, R. (2017). A Novel EEG Based Spectral Analysis of Persistent Brain Function Alteration in Athletes with Concussion History. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 1–13.

Oris, C., Pereira, B., Durif, J., Simon-Pimmel, J., Castellani, C., Manzano, S., … Bouvier, D. (2018). The biomarker s100b and mild traumatic brain injury: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 141(6).

Papa, L., Mittal, M. K., Ramirez, J., Ramia, M., Kirby, S., Silvestri, S., … Zonfrillo, M. R. (2016). In Children and Youth with Mild and Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Out-Performs S100β in Detecting Traumatic Intracranial Lesions on Computed Tomography. Journal of Neurotrauma, 33(1), 58–64.

Papa, L., Mittal, M. K., Ramirez, J., Silvestri, S., Giordano, P., Braga, C. F., … Zonfrillo, M. R. (2017). Neuronal Biomarker Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase Detects Traumatic Intracranial Lesions on Computed Tomography in Children and Youth with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 34(13), 2132–2140.

Papa, L., Zonfrillo, M. R., Welch, R. D., Lewis, L. M., Braga, C. F., Tan, C. N., … Mittal, M. K. (2019). Evaluating glial and neuronal blood biomarkers GFAP and UCH-L1 as gradients of brain injury in concussive, subconcussive and non-concussive trauma: a prospective cohort study. BMJ Paediatrics Open, 3(1), e000473.

Parkin, G. M., Clarke, C., Takagi, M., Hearps, S., Babl, F. E., Davis, G. A., … Ignjatovic, V. (2019). Plasma Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Is a Predictor of Persisting Symptoms Post-Concussion in Children. Journal of Neurotrauma, 36(11), 1768–1775.

Reches, A., Kutcher, J., Elbin, R. J., Or-Ly, H., Sadeh, B., Greer, J., … Kontos, A. P. (2017). Preliminary investigation of Brain Network Activation (BNA) and its clinical utility in sport-related concussion. Brain Injury, 31(2), 237–246.

Rhine, T., Babcock, L., Zhang, N., Leach, J., & Wade, S. L. (2016). Are UCH-L1 and GFAP promising biomarkers for children with mild traumatic brain injury? Brain Injury, 30(10), 1231–1238.

Studer, M., Goeggel Simonetti, B., Heinks, T., Steinlin, M., Leichtle, A., Berger, S., & Joeris, A. (2015). Acute S100B in serum is associated with cognitive symptoms and memory performance 4 months after paediatric mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 29(13–14), 1667–1673.

Tylicka, M., Matuszczak, E., Dȩbek, W., Hermanowicz, A., & Ostrowska, H. (2014). Circulating proteasome activity following mild head injury in children. Child’s Nervous System, 30(7), 1191–1196.

Last update: November 16, 2019