Research papers that support the present guideline recommendations:

Babcock, L., Yuan, W., Leach, J., Nash, T., & Wade, S. (2015). White matter alterations in youth with acute mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine, 8(4), 285–296.

Beauchamp, M. H., Beare, R., Ditchfield, M., Coleman, L., Babl, F. E., Kean, M., … Anderson, V. (2013). Susceptibility weighted imaging and its relationship to outcome after pediatric traumatic brain injury. Cortex, 49(2), 591–598.

Bonow, R. H., Friedman, S. D., Perez, F. A., Ellenbogen, R. G., Browd, S. R., Mac Donald, C. L., … Rivara, F. P. (2017). Prevalence of Abnormal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Children with Persistent Symptoms after Pediatric Sports-Related Concussion. Journal of Neurotrauma, 34(19), 2706–2712.

Chamard, E., & Lichtenstein, J. D. (2018). A systematic review of neuroimaging findings in children and adolescents with sports-related concussion. Brain Injury, 32(7), 816–831.

Dona, O., Noseworthy, M. D., DeMatteo, C., & Connolly, J. F. (2017). Fractal analysis of brain blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals from children with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). PLoS ONE, 12(1).

Ellis, M. J., Leiter, J., Hall, T., McDonald, P. J., Sawyer, S., Silver, N., … Essig, M. (2015). Neuroimaging findings in pediatric sports-related concussion. Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics, 16(3), 241–247.

Fakhran, S., Yaeger, K., Collins, M., & Alhilali, L. (2014). Sex Differences in White Matter Abnormalities after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Localization and Correlation with Outcome. Radiology, 272(3), 815–823.

Faris, G., Byczkowski, T., Ho, M., & Babcock, L. (2016). Prediction of Persistent Postconcussion Symptoms in Youth Using a Neuroimaging Decision Rule. Academic Pediatrics, 16(4), 336–342.

Genc, S., Anderson, V., Ryan, N. P., Malpas, C. B., Catroppa, C., Beauchamp, M. H., & Silk, T. J. (2017). Recovery of White Matter following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Depends on Injury Severity. Journal of Neurotrauma, 34(4), 798–806.

Iyer, K. K., Barlow, K. M., Brooks, B., Ofoghi, Z., Zalesky, A., & Cocchi, L. (2019). Relating brain connectivity with persistent symptoms in pediatric concussion. Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology, 6(5), 954–961.

Keightley, M. L., Singh Saluja, R., Chen, J.-K., Gagnon, I., Leonard, G., Petrides, M., & Ptito, A. (2014). A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Working Memory in Youth after Sports-Related Concussion: Is It Still Working? Journal of Neurotrauma, 31(5), 437–451.

King, R., Grohs, M. N., Kirton, A., Lebel, C., Esser, M. J., & Barlow, K. M. (2019). Microstructural neuroimaging of white matter tracts in persistent post-concussion syndrome: A prospective controlled cohort study. NeuroImage: Clinical, 23(April), 101842.

King, R., Kirton, A., Zewdie, E., Seeger, T. A., Ciechanski, P., & Barlow, K. M. (2019). Longitudinal assessment of cortical excitability in children and adolescents with mild traumatic brain injury and persistent post-concussive symptoms. Frontiers in Neurology, 10(MAY), 8–18.

Lancaster, M. A., Olson, D. V., McCrea, M. A., Nelson, L. D., LaRoche, A. A., & Muftuler, L. T. (2016). Acute white matter changes following sport-related concussion: A serial diffusion tensor and diffusion kurtosis tensor imaging study. Human Brain Mapping, 37(11), 3821–3834.

Mac Donald, C. L., Barber, J., Wright, J., Coppel, D., De Lacy, N., Ottinger, S., … Temkin, N. (2019). Longitudinal Clinical and Neuroimaging Evaluation of Symptomatic Concussion in 10-to 14-year-old Youth Athletes. Journal of Neurotrauma, 36(2), 264–274.

Manning, K. Y., Schranz, A., Bartha, R., Dekaban, G. A., Barreira, C., Brown, A., … Menon, R. S. (2017). Multiparametric MRI changes persist beyond recovery in concussed adolescent hockey players. Neurology, 89(21), 2157–2166.

Mayer, A. R., Hanlon, F. M., & Ling, J. M. (2015). Gray Matter Abnormalities in Pediatric Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 32(10), 723–730.

Morgan, C. D., Zuckerman, S. L., King, L. E., Beaird, S. E., Sills, A. K., & Solomon, G. S. (2015). Post-concussion syndrome (PCS) in a youth population: defining the diagnostic value and cost-utility of brain imaging. Child’s Nervous System, 31(12), 2305–2309.

Murdaugh, D. L., King, T. Z., Sun, B., Jones, R. A., Ono, K. E., Reisner, A., & Burns, T. G. (2018). Longitudinal Changes in Resting State Connectivity and White Matter Integrity in Adolescents with Sports-Related Concussion. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 24(8), 781–792.

Mutch, W. A. C., Ellis, M. J., Ryner, L. N., McDonald, P. J., Morissette, M. P., Pries, P., … Fisher, J. A. (2018). Patient-specific alterations in CO2 cerebrovascular responsiveness in acute and sub-acute sports-related concussion. Frontiers in Neurology, 9(JAN), 1–11.

Mutch, W. A. C., Ellis, M. J., Ryner, L. N., Morissette, M. P., Pries, P. J., Dufault, B., … Fisher, J. A. (2016). Longitudinal Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging CO2 Stress Testing in Individual Adolescent Sports-Related Concussion Patients: A Pilot Study. Frontiers in Neurology, 7(July), 1–8.

Mutch, W. Alan C. Ellis, Michael J. Ryner, Lawrence N. Graham, Ruth. Dufault, Brenden. Gregson, Brian. Hall, Thomas. Bunge, Martin. Essig, M. (2015). Brain magnetic resonance imaging CO2 stress testing in adolescent post-concussion syndrome: pCASL findings. Journal of Neurosurgery, 125(September), 1–13.

Newsome, M. R., Li, X., Lin, X., Wilde, E. A., Ott, S., Biekman, B., … Levin, H. S. (2016). Functional connectivity is altered in concussed adolescent athletes despite medical clearance to return to play: A preliminary report. Frontiers in Neurology, 7(JUL), 1–9.

Orr, C. A., Albaugh, M. D., Watts, R., Garavan, H., Andrews, T., Nickerson, J. P., … Hudziak, J. J. (2016). Neuroimaging Biomarkers of a History of Concussion Observed in Asymptomatic Young Athletes. Journal of Neurotrauma, 33(9), 803–810.

Rose, S. C., Schaffer, C. E., Young, J. A., McNally, K. A., Fischer, A. N., & Heyer, G. L. (2017). Utilization of conventional neuroimaging following youth concussion. Brain Injury, 31(2), 260–266.

Saluja, R. S., Chen, J.-K., Gagnon, I. J., Keightley, M., & Ptito, A. (2015). Navigational Memory Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Test for Concussion in Children. Journal of Neurotrauma, 32(10), 712–722.

Schmidt, J., Hayward, K. S., Brown, K. E., Zwicker, J. G., Ponsford, J., Van Donkelaar, P., … Boyd, L. A. (2018). Imaging in pediatric concussion: A systematic review. Pediatrics, 141(5).

Sinopoli, K. J., Chen, J.-K., Wells, G., Fait, P., Ptito, A., Taha, T., & Keightley, M. (2014). Imaging “Brain Strain” in Youth Athletes with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury during Dual-Task Performance. Journal of Neurotrauma, 31(22), 1843–1859.

Stephens, J. A., Liu, P., Lu, H., & Suskauer, S. J. (2018). Cerebral Blood Flow after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Associations between Symptoms and Post-Injury Perfusion. Journal of Neurotrauma, 35(2), 241–248.

Urban, K. J., Barlow, K. M., Jimenez, J. J., Goodyear, B. G., & Dunn, J. F. (2015). Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Reveals Reduced Interhemispheric Cortical Communication after Pediatric Concussion. Journal of Neurotrauma, 32(11), 833–840.

Urban, K. J., Riggs, L., Wells, G. D., Keightley, M., Chen, J.-K., Ptito, A., … Sinopoli, K. J. (2017). Cortical Thickness Changes and Their Relationship to Dual-Task Performance following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Youth. Journal of Neurotrauma, 34(4), 816–823.

Van Beek, L., Ghesquière, P., Lagae, L., & De Smedt, B. (2015). Mathematical Difficulties and White Matter Abnormalities in Subacute Pediatric Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 32(20), 1567–1578.

Van Beek, L., Vanderauwera, J., Ghesquière, P., Lagae, L., & De Smedt, B. (2015). Longitudinal changes in mathematical abilities and white matter following paediatric mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 29(13–14), 1701–1710.

Wang, Y., Nelson, L. D., LaRoche, A. A., Pfaller, A. Y., Nencka, A. S., Koch, K. M., & McCrea, M. A. (2016). Cerebral Blood Flow Alterations in Acute Sport-Related Concussion. Journal of Neurotrauma, 33(13), 1227–1236.

Wang, Y., West, J. D., Bailey, J. N., Westfall, D. R., Xiao, H., Arnold, T. W., … McDonald, B. C. (2015). Decreased cerebral blood flow in chronic pediatric mild TBI: An MRI perfusion study. Developmental Neuropsychology, 40(1), 40–44.

Westfall, D. R., West, J. D., Bailey, J. N., Arnold, T. W., Kersey, P. A., Saykin, A. J., & McDonald, B. C. (2015). Increased brain activation during working memory processing after pediatric mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine, 8(4), 297–308.

Wu, T., Merkley, T. L., Wilde, E. A., Barnes, A., Li, X., Chu, Z. D., … Levin, H. S. (2017). A preliminary report of cerebral white matter microstructural changes associated with adolescent sports concussion acutely and subacutely using diffusion tensor imaging. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 1–12.

Last update: November 16, 2019